Last Updated July 2005

TITLE - Dirck Volckertszen De Noorman
The first American Fulkerson, in old New Amsterdam



ARRIVAL

  We don't know much about Dirck Volckertszen before 1630. He was said to be a ship's carpenter. His Norwegian origins are virtually a certainty, based on the fact he was often called Dirck De Noorman [Dutch: Norseman]. Several other immigrants in New Amsterdam were called "De Noorman." All of them were documented as immigrating from Norway. A few of New Amsterdam's immigrants came from Bergen. At least 57 Norwegians settled in the colony of New Netherland between 1630 and 1674 ["The Norwegian Americans" by James M. Cornelius, Chelsea House Publishers, New York, NY, 1989, p. 31-32].

  Family legend (communicated to me from two separate branches of the family, years ago) says that he came to New Amsterdam from Bergen, Norway (click to see some images of Bergen). During the 1600s Bergen was controlled by German Hanseatic League merchants, which may have been sufficient reason for a young man to leave his homeland. Norwegian merchants did not regain control of the port until after 1700. His circle of acquaintances in New Amsterdam is yet another indication of his origins. The great majority of Dirck's personal and business dealings in the 1650s and 1660s were with Scandinavian immigrants. Some early researchers jumped to the erroneous conclusion that he was one of the Volckertsen brothers from Hoorn, a Dutch seaport. They were early investors in the Virginia tobacco trade, but there is no evidence in the Dutch record that they ever sailed to America: "24 Sep 1621: At the request of Dierck Volckertsen, Doctor Verus and Dr. Carbasius, all of Hoorn, Pieter State General Nannincx of Mdemblik, and Cornelis Volckertsen together with Pieter Dircksen Schoders, bookkeeper have received permission to send a ship to the Virginies loaded with all sorts of merchandise, to trade there and return with their cargo, goods and merchandise, agent and sailors to this country. They have to return before July 1, 1622."

  The probable reason for Dirck's immigration to North America can be traced to Peter MINUIT, the New Netherlands colony's third Director in as many years, who bought the whole of Manhattan Island from the Canarsee Indians in 1626 for $24 worth of trade goods. Minuit and his Assistant Director Isaac DE RAISIERES were anxious to demonstrate that their new colony had the resources and potential for industries....and especially a ship-building industry. By 1628 they imported a group of Scandinavian ship carpenters who knew how to make pitch from pine - a locally abundant resource - which was needed for caulking a ship's hull. This would place Dirck's arrival between 1626 and 1628. Another possibility is that he came over in 1625, when the Dutch West India Company imported builders to put up houses in the colony. (In 1624, the first year of the New Netherlands settlement, most of the colonists lived "underground" in log-lined, sod-roofed dugouts.) This scenario might have seen Dirck building the Vigne's house on the East River....and meeting a Christina Vigne who was in her early teens in that year. And as you'll see further down the page, Dirck was a house builder. [Interesting side note: John Follesdal's book "Ancestors from Norway: An introduction to Norwegian genealogy research" tells us that a Norwegian sailor named Sand acted as interpreter for Peter Minuit when he bought Manhattan island.]

Dutch New Amsterdam, showing a shipyard crane (center) on the East River

  Fortunately for us, the New Amsterdam colony spent a considerable amount of effort at record keeping. They took great care to write deeds, contracts and other agreements. They also kept detailed court records: New Amsterdammers were frequently found offending the law or suing one another. Many details of Dirck's life are known to us from the legal documents of that era, translations of which appeared in the "New York Historical Manuscripts" series and similar works. Where these historical manuscripts are quoted below, the general accronym "NYHM" will precede them.



THE VIGNE CONNECTION

  Dirck married Christina VIGNE in 1630/31, daughter of Guillaume VIGNE and Adrienne CUVELIER The Vignes were among the first 30 French Walloon families the Dutch West India Company imported to establish the New Netherlands colony in 1624. [By the way, Peter MINUIT was not Dutch...he was a French Walloon like the Vignes.] Dirck and Christina lived on her parents' farm, at the south end of Broadway, until 1638. Christina's father died in 1632, and Dirck and his mother-in-law were named executors of the will, as recorded below:

NYHM: "We the undersigned, Willem Weyman, smith and Jan Tomasen Groen, as referees, do by this instrument attest and certify for the real truth that Dirck Volgersen Noorman and Ariaentje Cevelyn, his wife’s mother, came before us in order to enter into an agreement with her her children whom she has borne by her lawful husband [Willem Vienje], settling on Maria Vienje and Christina [Vienje], both married persons, on each the sum of two hundred guilders as their portion of their father’s estate, and on Resel Vienje and [Jan] Vienje, both minor children, also as their portion of their father’s estate,
on each the sum of three hundred guilders; with this provision that she and her future lawful husband, Jan Jansen Damen, shall out of the remainder of the property be bound to bring up the above named two children until they attain their majority, without using more than the interest, and be bound to clothe and rear the aforesaid children as children ought to be [clothed and reared], to keep them at school and to give them a good trade, as parents ought to do. Thus is done in New Netherland on the island of Manhattan and in Fort Amsterdam, the last of April 1632. In confirmation of which this was signed by Jacob Planck, the writer of this instrument; also with this sort of mark X, after which was written: This is the mark of Dirck Volckertsen Noorman; Jan Tomasen Groen, and This is the X mark of Willem Weyman. "The preceding agreement is recorded here with a view that if lost an authentic copy may again be obtained here, [the record] having been found by me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, secretary, to agree with the original. Done this 7th of May 1638, at Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland."

  Dirck and Christina initially lived in her mother's household, but they did not get along well with Jan Jansen DAMEN. Perhaps it was for that reason that Dirck obtained a loan, possibly to buy his own house, in May of 1638:
NYHM: May 1, 1638: "Promisory note of Dirck Holgersen to Director Kieft.
"Before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, secretary of New Netherland, appeared Dirck Holgersen, Noorman, to me well known, who freely and deliberately acknowledged that he was indebted to the Hon. Mr. Willem Kieft, director here in New Netherland for the General Chartered West India Company, in the sum of seven hundred and twenty guilders, payable in three installments; the first instalment of fl. 300 Dirck Holgersen shall be bound to pay on the fairday of Amsterdam 1638; the second instalment of fl. 300 in like manner on the fairday of Amsterdam 1639; and the third and last instalment of fl. 120 on the fairday of Amsterdam anno 1640. He hereby promises to pay the aforesaid money honestly and honorably into the hands of the Hon Mr. Kieft, or his successor, free of costs and charges, without any gainsay, submitting to that end his person and property, real and personal, present and future, without any exception, to the control of all courts, judges and justices under the jurisdiction of the Provincial Court of Halland, and to all other courts, judges and justices, without any exception. In testimony and token of the honest truth, I have subscribed this with my own hand. Thus done in For Amsterdam in New Netherland, this first of May Ao. 1638. "This is the X mark of Dirck Holgertsen Noorman." [Footnote: "fairday of Amsterdam" – Sept. 22.]

  Dirck could not move out fast enough for Jan Jansen DAMEN. Barely two months later the conflict rose to the boiling point:
NYHM: July 21, 1638: "Jan Damen, plaintiff, vs. Abraham Isaacksen Planc and Dirck Holgersen, Noorman, defendants. The plaintiff requests to be master of his house and that the defendants be ordered to acknowledge him as such and to stay away from the plaintiff’s house. The defendants are ordered to keep away from the plaintiff’s house and to leave him master in his own house."

"Dirck Holgersen, Noorman, plaintiff, vs. Jan Damen, defendant, for assault. Parties are ordered to submit testimony, the case being put over to the next court day."

July 22, 1638: " Declaration of Mauritz Jansen and Pieter de Mey regarding an attempt of Jan Damen to throw Dirck Holgersen’s wife out of doors. "This day, the 22d of July 1638, before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, secretary of New Netherland, appeared Mourits Jansen, assistant, aged 20 years, and Pieter de May, aged 24 years, and jointly declared by true Christian words in place and with promise of an oath, if necessary, that it is true and truthful that the wife of Dirck Holgersen, Noorman, being at the house of Jan Damen and said Jan Damen telling her that she must go out of the house, she refused and did not intend to leave the house, whereupon Jan Damen aforesaid pushed said Dirck Holgertsen’s wife out of the house, as she would not depart by fair words. Dirck Holgersen thereupon coming to defend his wife, Jan Damen, drawing a knife, made a cut at said Dirck Holgertsen, who took up a post and struck Jan Damen with it. This is all. They, the deponents, concluding herewith their declaration, etc. Maurits Jansen. Pieter de Mey."

July 22, 1638: "Declaration of surgeon Gerrit Schutt and Jan Pietersen respecting the above assault.. " This day, the 22nd of July Ao. 1638, before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, appeared Gerrit Schut and Jan Pietersen, alias Comrade Jan, at the request of Dirck Holgertsen, Noorman, and jointly declared by Christian words, in place and with promise of an oath if necessary, that it is true and truthful that they, the deponents, being some days ago at the house of Jan Damen, there saw and heard what follows. "First, Jan Damen dunning Dirck Volgertsen for payment of fl. 20, Dirck answered that he did not owe him anything. Jan Damen thereupon replied: ‘Begone out of the house!’ and forthwith threw Christina, Dirck Holgersen’s wife, out of doors and struck her. Furthermore, drawing a knife, he cut and thrust at said Dirck Hollegersen’s wife, as appears from the skirt which she then had on. "Further, Dirck Holgersen, seeking to defend his wife, threw a pewter can at Jan Damen, but missed him, whereupon Jan Damen made for him with a naked knife in his hand, cutting and thrusting at him and, as the said Dirck sought to defend his life, Dirck aforesaid took up a post to keep Jan Damen off. As Dirck Holgerts was going toward the fort or elsewhere, said Jan Damen again beat Dirck Volgersen’s wife with his fists and tore the cap off her head and challenged Dirck, saying: ‘If you have the courage, draw your knife’. But Dirck, being sober, would not do so and only defended himself with a post. The deponents declare all this to be true. Done at Fort Amsterdam, the day and year aforesaid. Gerrit Schutt. This is the X mark of Jan Pietersen, nicknamed Comrade Jan."


MANHATTAN REAL ESTATE

  From 1638 - the date of the above promissory note - to 1645, Dirck owned the large house at 125 Pearl Street. It was about a block south of Wall Street. He also leased a nearby farm property from the Dutch West India Company. The details of the agreement let us know how Dirck would spend much of his next six years:
Pearl St. intersecting Wall St. at the east gate of The Wall
Pearl St. intersecting Wall St. at the
east gate of The Wall, about 1700
NYHM: May 18, 1639, lease from Director Kieft to Dirck Holgersen of a farm and stock on halves: "Before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, secretary in New Netherland, appeared the honorable, prudent Mr. Willem Kieft, director general in the New Netherland on the part of the General Chartered West India Company, of the first part, and Dirck Holgersen, Noorman, of the second part, and acknowledged that they had amicably agreed and contracted in presence of the undersigned witnesses in manner as follows:

"The Hon. Director Willem Kieft delivers to Dirck Holgersz aforesaid the following animals belonging to Messrs. the directors of the West India Company, to wit, three cows, two of which are dry and one with calf, one heifer, one bull calf, one mare of [ ] years, one mare of two years, and one stallion, the receipt of all the which animals from the hands aforesaid Dirck Holgersen acknowledges, and he shall have the use of the above mentioned cattle for six consecutive years, beginning [ ] and ending [ ].

"For each cow, Dirck Holgersen shall annually pay to the honorable director aforesaid, or to the Company’s agent, thirty pounds of butter. Also, at the expiration of the six years, animals to the same number and in as good condition as those now delivered shall first be set aside for the Company and then the parties shall divide half and half the remaining cattle which by God’s blessing shall be bred from the aforesaid animals.

"Likewise, Dirck Holgersen aforesaid shall be bound during the above mentioned six years to deliver to the Company one half of the grain which he with God’s blessing shall raise on his farm, with the express promise that he shall cultivate it, or have it [162] cultivated diligently and industriously, without attending exclusively to the increase of the cattle, in order that the Company may annually receive a good quantity of grain.

"The honorable director aforesaid promises that during the term of the lease, if diligence be used in the cultivation of the land, there shall be given to the above named Dirck Holgersen for the maintenance of servants fifty Carolus guilders a year.

"For all of which the parties bind their persons and estates, movable and immovable, present and future, without any exceptions, under submission to all lords, courts, judges and justices, all in good faith. In testimony and token of the truth two copies of the same tenor are made hereof and subscribed by the parties. Done in Fort Amsterdam, this 18th of May 1639, in New Netherland."

  Dirck's house on Pearl Street was on a quarter-acre and had a garden and apple trees. He sold the house in 1645. The deed states he took six of the apple trees when he moved.

NYHM: Sept. 22, probably 1645, contract of sale of a house and lot on Manhattan island from Dirck Volckertsen to Govert Aertsen: "Before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, [s]ecretary of New Netherland, appeared Dirck Volckertsen, an inhabitant here, who in the presence of the undersigned witnesses acknowledges that he has sold to Govert Aertsen, who also acknowledges that he has bought, the house and lot belonging to him, Dirck Volckertsz, standing and situated on the island of Manhatans, where the lot of Dirck Cornelisen adjoins on the west side and that of Jan Damen on the east side, and that as large or as small as the house and lot lied within the fences, with all that is fastened by earth and nail on condition that the vendor shall be at liberty to remove six apple trees of his choice and carry them where he pleases. Also, all of the produce of the garden shall remain at the disposal of the vendor, but the purchaser may have what he needs of the vegetables for himself and his partner and a good friend at the time of the Amsterdam fair [22 September] and not before. For which house and lot the above mentioned Govert Aertsen promises to pay the sum of three hundred and twenty-five guilders down at the Amsterdam fair next, when the delivery shall be made. Which being done, the vendor promises said house and lot with a proper deed, free from any claims or demands which might be made by any one in the world, all exactly as the purchaser himself [obtained the lot by] patent. In witness and token of the truth, this is signed by the respective parties to the knowledge of the undersigned witnesses, the Amsterdam in New Netherland."

In 1648 Sergeant Daniel LITSCHOE purchased the site and converted the house into a tavern. The site of this tavern appears on the 1660 map of the city; however, LITSCHOE traded it in 1653 for "the Jansen house" just north of the City Wall. This may have been the old VIGNE home, since Jan Jansen DAMEN had just died, so Adrienne CUVELIER - Dirck's mother-in-law and Jan's widow - may have They a.blisSCH1utive yorthld knifER - Dir theck's house on Pearl St.> I91,iftpy attKIDDself andheir his wifeasidem PetMessSDech OORT,n he mouse int as lck's house on Pearl St, one bout a block soutER - Dir theck's h. the BR>

ER - Diralso le ate,
R> Ngiug. 7, In9,1dee bred me, Cornelis van Tienhvers to Dirck Volclgersen the one iniSmMah’nelir Wyloine of Manhattatace:hrs. "This Thitf the uwas wrie me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, secretant h and cysvers to Dirck Volslgen therees of ling and situ one iniSmManelir Wylated on the island of Manhataby are v pies of by] pay ofcumeging toabyy to the honoreft, director gensite anute=l; onan'sthter) onlock seast sidts of trlherlm of se[128] he eries anx f St; onan'sth ona at and ,ier) onjust seast lm of s he eries nobt f St; onachal semen on the east seaslt s he eries nobt f St; onachal semen on wee east seaslt s he erieseaslars, and-one f Stside, and ont is true fne tck rg a ,this pdswered tha,s to Dirck Volslgee itters howirck obss of ign=r,very shal andj digin all howined thrdtmeetant X, a any cmade. Wises me, Cornelis van Tienh. He herrCornquPublly as tck rg a pies of thie andrman, of diovebmishands aforeh and cytens of the sven to the above ns to Dirck Volslgee itters howtmeeirck obs of ign=r, ont is tck rg a ture, with se remaifrom any cman,tck rg a ptade hendor, rCornquPubtens of the shhe fand fse!’ and how1640e me, Cornelis van Tienhoptade and tsen promisesousee of and cyntena conndoi standingarlyiolonorions, under submiss[of end his person and prop]ctlyher-inthis pdswmade, withfraudaims ly rtuth, this is signed byy ofcuortneigned witnesses,this 7tgiug thJuly In9,utch New Amsterm in New Netherlan."

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&nbs to Dias vs. Abrnths l tck owe ano hideoine of Manhan to ugewith thwst s'd ianoiuaint,fter which and uai ini: with tck's mother-in- so Adrienne CUVEL(old V)irck mowful husince Jan Jansen DA

45. add expidts259e on Pearl Sthich tn. The sitea and busi alday,e19isrCcarury:hrA.L.t ofsitu her Schat Iny imp doors Dy, p d aldEngstab,d by Geoorsgian Amert orBror0thCutleliv&c"ttle whiis,trade him os for " and ding exclusi the aorBror0re hiy one in UniptaiSed strma I fisdvproibles theidefencue han ls us haps iteft, diratelrn, s of trl Stland e in UniptaiSed slirc ey. 1700 UOTE>

land e arsee Indreet and hae fe-et alandircgster) on the East Racre and nher e) on ate,
Ngd: "DeclarationLoupp s Jan Pieterhusinoha. wibsp;bes ther, but the purcnbat to Dirck Holgersen ohlsirclaraemen on wee east sen toby]hrkhe wiL.I.tsen: "Befored by J H atducklgeaKa tu[cserD]iaping pta one in th presence ofven, secreabyy to the honoreft, director gensite anute=ltary of New Netherland, appeaLoupp s Jan Pietesidem45.chabnd mrdam orwde May, ther, 3ed 20 ye*sen, an inhabitant here, who in the presence of the undersigned witnestly declary, that it is true and truthful tre tru ther, egn= for nobtily, years,o in thecis, thefor te case b thare kging to,t to Dirck Holge the pure bred me, Cornctor Wilger hlsislrpies of thiek of Dirck Holgertaly a ceroo cesencetherlcase bn ohlsirclara and situoins on the west psen tobychestatopinThe sRke p a sBoid Co’s,fter which 62] cultivabyy toises me,.ctor Wilgerside pay the sufair1] waseven hundred and twenty guild all of w the h0e me, .ctor Wilgenext, when the purehicht be ,dowf, and-one ieft to Dirck Holgember and d conditiogemave receea aarppltarnd a gbemannectcs urumeto the er traer anast lot thiek to Dirck Holgemberure, witedoubps it hhieh of b"laresence ocsaid m638, beyon thnebred fs, wheo) onjust s,fter wt he fne iwit, tiorbeenrily, yk X, a) on the purehicht be asesr all of w h0eaLoupp s Jan Pieteistly declthis to behouse and tharnc[d: "Declara]t it be mag tonhasusivelyby, gned witveln of the taith. In testimwade hewih, this is signed t. The deptias bind ned witneswih, t22sland oe pJuly I511639, in the Amstel 8. "This is the X maraLoupp s Jan Holgert be mad for himd by J Janlge Huys,gned witvGhehut Janlge,gned wit And acknowle638, befored by JaKa tuCserDBR> < oe pJ28, I51,dee bred amed Dirck Holgegin Jan Pi tuddeias vs. Abr Janlge of hredtern toby]hrkhe tsen: befored by JaKa t one in th presence ofven, secreaaping ptaabyy to the honoreft, diresite anute=ltary of New Netherland, appeamed Dirck Hokertsen, an inhabitant here,stly decldges tha and hasndred and cyem andthardone. He her[aegdred and cy],gin Jan Pi tuddeias vs. Abr Janlget onecia Comrtaly a ceroooe pltarnling and situated tobychestrkheatopinThe sRke p a sBoid Co’s,sidem Ply lot belongin me, Cornctor Wilger ande remaithcs remitting te by] pa and tweely tws Bes,swaseven hundredsidetweasl he e;l of wnling h0,d byy ofcuorisand cysvery toises Jan Pi tuddeias vs. Abr Janlget onecia Comrtont is deed,eias ign=rfu tck rg a ,ttade and tpp nuteten gel qualeias the intel of wtha andttade ontred aretandie t majorder to enrat 62] cultitred e hy toises nlingeed,eias unmasusitu,nail on condition thatte, prvclara,ove mentioing te by] pa asvery toisen acknow paymenined thrdsdred potnd meninto this coy loecia lot lied ;, in during the above mentioPi Pi tuddeias vs. Abr Jansri obs oher’s estrty, realthc viroan, witivation of ling the aforesaidtpp nuteten gel any cotned ny,shhe fand fse!’ and how1640tsen prom,ttade and ,isesousee of of d agreed and cyntena conndoi standingarlyiolonorions, udoi standobochclaractcs remittinr-inaith. In testimwade hewth, I hndersiibed this bind ned witneswih, t22sland oe p, I51,, in the Amsterdam in New Netherl 8. "This is the X mark of Dirck Holgert be mad for himd by J Janlge Huys,gned witvGhehut Janlge,gned wiet And acknowle638, befored by JaKa tuCserDyear.ors. "This day, tis 1and oe pJuly I511y to the honorway,r VeStuyvafoptias bind anute=ltary of New Nethert hectcs22 Sds is , bewas g. In testi asvery tn the puretion of ling, as rorderedingctcs remitl- may heclafiunding the aband cyntenamed eumenbat to Dirck Holgerilloovorpie Jan Pi tuddeias vs.Abr Jansritent. In witmwade hewih, this is siabyy to the honoreft, director genson38 - theg the a was wri ttd of Manhardam in New Nether.e .eStuyvafoptand." UOTE>


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&nbsTt, the hife trlock sou9, , Noo'srKi s, them wheres elCharts oheboaetrees.t bssory may n he mousven t, the hipby Geiligeway, uk X, a)an5 1625, t ofr as sed a neands settlemaryBhswy Di hed to estabcorerUen untinhoptade gnes n' fast enonegn=bodrtiebe bounsen, ascted iotrespectingfarm property rsee IntManseni.bsTt, the have e freque the reedmeccupineededJulyd 20 y.> Ttoithery ofcui hnoundiespecit is recoou9t of Ap3,e in ias the er traer bt ans s iz nk X, a) ondEngstabs he tov a) onands colony i6 16 the lHf the lecond rees of li bounsfetoow t a NorwegJocry tCAL BOouse in9.> aand, apedges t to Di he coymittin any sing snegn=bodrty s ofokCev,tin elponly deiaany gts arsee Indroen,Msame nureesck ign=rt of er as foedoing te her e)an50's. the : R=0>
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NYJu. h2, In9, the lbred amed Dirck Holgegin Jsenem aalmainder ofoo cesencetherousrL bettanru tsen: "Before me, Cornelis van Tienhoven, secretary of New Netherland, appeanocrem aalmaipany, of the first part, and Dirck Holzrman, of the second here, who in the presence of the undersigned witnesand acknowleart,stly decldges oinyir lienart good frian that they mu virlmpcarpe mousveart nts, con moaly a cer645, contrer6Mey revery tn lincreastaly a ceroo cesencetherlter) onl on condis ade on X, a was writ and Dirck Holz lincrsveranocrem aalmaitaly a ceroo cesencetherl and sitrousrL bettanru ptsen together y toithertned ny "Be lincsiabyy to,t to D,veranocrem aalmai,sidering the ter and twesix consecutive yeeciametetenrdam ann51 [ ] and enrdam ann71. Ttoitwitnnd he shall h of ling, hnebreehside, of the foned six yce bound dur to o torbeenrt s the follow[106] six yd he shpny may annuside, ve the useses nlinge(all of whitoitwitnnd he s 62] cultitred e hthat as large or as smalcond malchnd he s tnn tht) pay the suswaseven hundredsiiftwenty gudrty m as hpny myd he s payagai curpp pasesr alwith theunsrsl of whitoitwitnnd he sty curty nrck buil,sietetenrdad all hort or Thih if necesndor shall b) onl has larfhitoitwitnnhere,ndor shm a m as panyre agreemmalchnd he s d wik tht;dingarfthathnd, nered tha,hitoitwitnnhd hck wodinhdhatof stipulsitrered hitoitwitvendor ssoryhall be at libertyejterthat the wvenSesc defendbred h of lideiaany gtwith thwsis alin the fearge ny o torpanyre agreemt be madhitoitwitnnhdof all hortna Fhhthat amey lo,very slso, at the expiration of and tw six y lot bety fne tck rg a ertyitoitwitveelyn,lth yce b his succetices, witbind thak, sa him anytside, vemfore. see f a conmajoias bindheeridemaresence yn,645, conthich the parties bind ththe respecheir persons and proisinsay, submitting to thattinl of all crsonsrts, juaith. In testimwade hewih, this is signed t. the parsonigneancecNay,lars, and Pi Jan zsen, Noormned witnesned ny,wih, the 22d oneJuly In91639, in the Amstel 8. "This is the X maraand Dirck Holzrt be mad for himl 8. "This is the X maranocrem aalmairt be mad for himl 8. "This is PIhe X mar and Pi Jan zrmned witrt be mad for himed by JaKa tancecNay,lrmned witne" n." EAt ign=rThis curpp pdmhe can to tl a alin bre (whs l) was irclaraousven t, yetoow (lide)heir porThiwith all the res canen, Noo'srKi str70N a neern NoorAenhuhi hebove nsidet to Di(the )roeni heern NooeCe ak164Iit 862,hitoiUSS Msni hii henrck ts2ut a bs ust swee outER - Dir theblaemster sidt aalyerdred Wee earl Stdregewit, tut a bs see f a ust sdraw' shaes bind thebEt lh revFat life hipar all the prol ante=lsctt Ge aning pbred t 872te - 955regecndwitness Ge aning pbovspechMad WEALhave Tcond rees li as couirctts60"_bl ilik,rsee I trl St part,This may have bbodDamen td it 893yearUOTTE> UOTE>

1

1 A> Tat the utarsoni the conff. As Dreetg been f for himsses iys ey e eroms anytsutER - Dirl hase aipantha. Per and dd hoas payl hase aiman, of tcuffopo grain whically l1638:
N FebSep6,t in2tseClaes H atduxrman, plaintiaany gtER -ri Dirck Valcker;s or dembred fenes2ut aml,"For d22 f Stkt be,s2uo cessning [ ] 22uo cesst i f Stkt beyman. men, defen d thin telears to dee, vemfR>
"The honod thrdsshch anute=lcettary of New Nethert hetan aegebher allmobtained esitE="Asay, sube nts, tatantaly a ceneboarvenethe utaival bethim, Dirck Volckears, and Pi me, CornzallytanousrL bettanru vennder the jurisdicmaryB whenelge,haes ,ctcs remittoin at tecisdicmarya ni coirectdsitre19HDe, eru d d condi"Ajuocugreem the pcumegingus,s us from the aforeeboar lot besvers to Dirck Volclzpart,ttade and , in orDhett the ot, hech achone out of, in p,aer nolaio pay the afor, and Pi me, Cornzgin d e hiyart, d nofn payeboarversim, Dirck Volckears tck rices, theunsrsouse."<"ue. Don, in the Amsterdam in New Netherhecdy ne soora (whis is si: ) Nstosi. Th iSin a, me,.cVis van Tiengrain.
<+ FebSe16,t in4dam"Ultduck Janlge,gpltml v/ss to Dirck Vols Damen,pasBe, arlmen, assa"ircky ,gpcgsi160rain.
< Octtr15,t in5 – and Dirck Holgersen, Noormtaxtre10enty gudrson1li, most"eir percase b theaid dhall remab pcuouse."
< Octtr25,t in5 – "Reyerearund llge,gpltml v/ss to Dirck Volts Damen,pasDn,p,arlmen, aspasDn, aspi hey ofcumesonnuside, ve for payment of 9.>Nse nueome, si3 six youse."
14asFenethebuos pay d iy to six t in4asDn,p.rsen acknowle aofstlbt;dsme dayl dam t foridtble, pre,tiff requesim 16C.elis van Tienhocase bble, pred ieCll c, the res bailside, ve for paymbymen,pad ioned bekdantade and men,papanR obs ohmen, asp,s ue bailswa,645, ord dises tolied witned bekda"ain.
< of Ap3,t in6 – "Symreupot, ge,gpltml v/ss td Dirck Hos Damen,pasPltmlsiff reqm for paymastned ny "BeasDn,p.rsen acknowle aofstlbp.rWned tlyheh of lisc, in o m, whereh of Fiscat the reed bailside, ve for pay,t to Dirck Holgetof, in otrerohm a mIntMs is pay,themeh of Fiscat the u aomises tolan." ⭧ntadent, mhe thee the conftieb house i56,themet to Di hendeeigneancecDE PERIE,ea aarppl-m a rhere, any cpeamed Dito ebfendeddinga" purfendedbred h of Srlherertyito Clapbod hda"1ntadequarpplars,haound duea d choghe soofRecSeptet 8,t in5. cDE PERIEi he coymittin cs,aehrt, and Dicaugeyndeddit,heas te, NY Octtr30,t in6 – "Schone d’Sin a,gpltml v/ss td Dirck Hos Dsen, Noormen,pasDn,p.arlmen, aspasPltmls or de ,s us dtsreCll caaping peClmbut aiparties aoarlidemaondi obs oh the preseamisesouws to Dirck Volclgerwbe diek of Jesisantadsiff reqhich bei agrN had jScheeuns by J Scoykerdred H atduckaKa tl aaping ptaeClmbut mentrda"1BR>
(thare kgwhew Newih, and heft, digainntertalmals tok of Jesid esis l)1700 De, 18,t in6 – "Gsid pa the ot, ,gpltml v/ss to Dirck Volts Damen,pasDn,p.arlmen, aspa" ( coto)1700 De, 18,t in6 – "Jaer, e e,e,gpltml v/ss to Dirck Volts Damen,pasDn,p.arlmen, aspasPltmlsif did dueenss or dmo grarorsecsiff reql andyb and ,s us men,payb 645, ord dises toland thse onesim ,tp rens dmsay" tons f Ssside, v0rwbe dmave ree bred men,payR> "Theos sSchone d’Sin a the mhe sered mpltmlk of Jesi0. aesid cuthe us aisdic and,h0ars,haotadequarpplns dmswbe dien t men,paybyitouck dueahknsfe obs ohebodeasAdmswned tln t men,pariioinmen, asp,s uempltmlkwaf, in otrero theaid anmiaany part,ttageero yre as ohe’s esmpcuouse."< ofr 8,t in7 – "Jaer, Jesie,gpltml v/ss to Dr, sen, Noormen,pasPltmlsexhibiql thesufenisewith thmaindethis fRecSep a.blicows, sehis es d: "Declares,swastioincecFotreducklgeart,swastioiP asus H ymnhatabyrain whiaand, ape,s us s to Dr, sen, NIntMansenfendeds uempltmlart,s purfendedbred h of Srlherertyito Clapbod hd and,issing fne iwdse rlf vennderly a ifAmetarsif didle638, b senecriwdsircs. Rff rersec andyb and ,s us men,payb ,ttade and ,645, ordf vennderesim thsymbyndeddingaSy" ton s f SsasDn,p.dsme ,s us fofswaeside, of the ftieore, s ohhknsfe,s us s uempltml and andcfendeds ovate oft hetan the fts inekndedsid andd hck w r lot wihknsfe,rain whi. He nro kft hetants ineknd it issedges, ank X, awd hit iitrerorkhe nded lot wihnanfendag HoantsreCll c, in oien t men,paero yre as ohe’s esmpcuyher to the eCll csome,theme see f a the dicondivery shall be ouse."< ofr 25,t in7 – " to Dirck Volts Dagpltml v/sk of Jee Dielf and his wiMcrirmen,psasPltmlsiff reqms us men,psahere,m,h0. ae theaid d,hsgned witnevennderlyasaival betndeddingk of Jesi ,645op rherck we he pl. In tfyveln of the tak of Jee Dttade and stly decl,s us vennderlmotatanand,h sloridbcl,sto thwk of Jesi dingk to Dirck Volts De hk, sa ht d chtsen togetreh of floorbeeital----ges, anargk of Jesie,rainlee hk, sa,l be h to Dirck Volts Defre frequeh of lie,ram, whereh to Dirck Volts r645, courisebpart, a thes higeyr as foed;art,and,h , the depo,fthieveln ofmdges tha. ck weead xacsotl and hintdre, witeto unorithat awpaymawde dre, wit and are sa him anytsing .iMcri d’Jee D, He and hh. In conis is d: "Declaratio mowful hus the al be part,stly decl6sank X, awd hi anargk of Jesie sde d‘tade ’sher, Ds ofsen, Nooere,t hectebok sixzeewai obs of ssen;art,aerd hck we hk, de, ve D---ld hck ws a for"; He dges k of Jesi ’shmhan olrtned,sto thwk. This, a) oissts ohhknsfeousveher, Ds ofsen, Noo’it isse.h to Dirck Volts r,hesnesso grarorsecs of Jesi ’ss or dm nts, consec,s us s uempl,pas of Jesi ’spcarpe ms or dmobt thebut miart,aerobt645, ordf venndet645eqm.rWm, wherehasnfet oes may see f a evidpres;s dsme ,sYes;k of Jesi ’shmhandor,s us r to o tors may havekging to,art,aeroohhg demawde.rWade and nderlyasaind h5eqe derlanse."< ofr 29,t in7 – " to Dirc Volts Dagpltml v/sincecFotreducklge,k of Jesi ’se of seramen,pasPltmlsiff reqm,s us men,pas he s. In tfyveln of the tyb and dtsreCll caasgin all sto thwkpplvspecveln ofore, dra out ofhknsfaival betndedgpltmldingk of Jesi antade andy the afor,men,paand, apped ieCll cart,stly decl6tll sto thw, reupon cokone out of the hok of Jesi dingk to Dirck Volts Desz, stantopinThe "For o tor,"For lot wihknsfe obs of h, sside, and k to Dirck Volts D) oisst thes side,ito ebfgk of Jesie obs of lotlmside, and k of Jesie an D) oisstther y toiing p out ofhknsfaireh to Dirck Volts r’it issedges, thwk of Jesi d X, awd his purfh to Dirck Volts r lot windag HoasAdm see f adayl dam tstly decland." STUYVESANTd to estabcoidhforh suf100enty gudrsideore, drawihknsfe..ldingequadru he oesblooslwhe abcoreBynderesim nderesE="A andt ,t to D elderhctit, mos the ihip carpeielf and br's mothe lhwk of old Vi he wah of the CCnute=l..lsn endhfor.t bssory may havekequhe 6tll stige. t[DE PERIEi he He were caancecDE PREEvennderecll c yreceestandregeancecDE PREEvsupeamed Dside, v0trigey antingfarm propctt Ge aning pouse in4.cDE PREE thsydingk to Dmave ree stinoundiespey ofcuiblh of lideouse in5. CCnite=s irctlmsid JececDE PRYi herkhe tioinyivian wavekoinyJu e)an58rainle coymitties a isihipgdpievsuy rce be pbtcs , the umproboin aarppls wiosQuebtp.]althe BRthe BRthe BRthe BR

NYt"Bho mar ay] pas," olI:370,t[assup,lundpeerhcdie t ma y ou]Yt"Ann yher to Gse outEGodoutEGhe gsBoiumhe s60"_ o& Ireli boQu anouse."<"Ri hasd Nstoe f.EsqrEGovorEGerigfias unds fos L es RoyigfiHige witn Jve f. uk out NewDeias vlbhim us atl and Td. G hipar ingian Ame HATHyhe ay] pa undss of h, sdingaSy, p B aph beiy] r to Tnd twsiiftheiym us Odires demTf a ieseSslhree huseSsltwsSy,e l be y ofcumeheclafiund&. In conundhsve Je Am Janlge,gDeduckern Noo,iP asus Ri hasds,rDhetd Neakinis&rL betGyabn caas ay]] pa Sssideart,swa B one larfhitor hiveis&bind taastcufetarbindbreehousep doors Ian inhabismentaly a ceneT, ntScnd sit Lych be&sBse btins on the Ridse bout NewD Sedretre tKtandCCnuttyousrL bettanru eciamdilywere caaor are n yher todove outEBhswG D363Ls us r toeT, nian outEBhswj D3the afnd&.re r toeL de atm, whsveoadjnith be&sBst belonlied wiw onsBounddoors Limhe s ade ond X, ative p62]er e theintel…and."
&nbInered the d 20 aSDech RAPALJE -ere,ousr9yJuny i25hich, of the fi as cbbodDrdam in New Nether -ealer, s dendestinsnegn=bodr164mowful hus Tecoms Guyabn caBOGARTions, u, ofheirsBoiuta aadmitheqexpira, by] pa verom0ladjnith belde, and h,mobten tck owbyaSDechirhall fwful hus Hanl Hanlen BERGEN. cTtodove ctor ca bst bssred rtinctor itehC NY"Ri hasd Nstoe f,.Esq.rWned tly f ahi he a by] paaored a frbsisftned ny "Bey ofcusignefrom the DuGov ae hctor itehKisftdhsve Hanl Hanleando aph beiy] r to 30theiym usd oe p, I47rsidetaly a ceroooe pltarnling lytenaing bse btins on Whe Ride bout NewDsedretupusrL bettanru ptied wiw onhKi s payaeciamdilywere caaJverf Ropalye'srKi s,terssf bounddodia trl e DJaloonlbyy toisesaaJverf Ropalye'srH a njust sAt lsonigneaAt lsusven t, Plsirclara payaand, re remaitiesLamt li Hut lirt(Mol)nsaogalmalinohne iniSwede'srKi soun, v0he X t bounddpart,ttageerow onhKi s lot belonginn toby]hlbyy toiswamp,bred ext,9c sve aunlbyy toifpresencgDeduckerck Vols D'f li brain whi. bougeyndector ca bs,k nveroJaloonlbyy tat lot belongins of e islan H aryaSDe lyr ande remonlbyyIn teclara ther, 480telr treeed a fr,tre , v0trigeyk nv qualevery toises oooe plltarnlinghich bei voivedtupus Tecoms Gist lirt[BOGART],tershe Xsis bind nede tru Reconftar Hanl Hanlen [BERGEN] the afor,rsideta. In coeclarasusven t, for, Tecoms Gist lirlanOTE> Dsitre of Ap5,y i67.nd." >

&#s to Dtru ent, moslyn,lth yands sed te kgat Bid wG Dlon t, moslyn,y ofcd as cotngnes sbodDamen t.R> Onehese hisane’s ecl6tll " to Dtna Fhctlm645, cibupta one h slorone out v0rvin aghdges,lor) onl ons inepiration ofnrck builsthey, ta bsts r toewhs lwme ,, v0lof ddoorsstigelmpanyorhabi foli,be a"1nH. He nnoecl6" of lhiy onrsee Intwd fdecLce b for "n te2]epiratios of lotligepp poeir reoliopo gre inrsececll aghges,loriutvspeclor) rssfsfetoowands s rgere, h,mobudt isrequeh Xsree bred mEund panthis coiss...s.t usymbnl onsin otrero may havekewas on, ofwit, tuonesz, stanoeir reolioisioing tehese him us, v0tt, nmaryBhswy Drees.ealer, siqm focoioe prees.ewrrhaprhusep fi olstcoupcuou22s to D hhieh axartie, v0tt, nmaryBhswy Dlony i75ice be pers, NewDlony i77tr700a di, ther,y i78aory i80ice bewrr t2, proesbusis sid and te, lday,e1850'sday,ee hn, the hi hss orostabebpart, a are s lotievtrero ande all of the fatphidei he1levtlebparo yre st eae!’ andl ons inepiratine of Manha.lthe BRthe BRthe BRthe BR BR>

END OF OUR NEW YORK CITY REAL EALAT">EMPIRETION

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&#s to Dtand hasverom0lios of Ge aning pnlinghevtn638, beyo n he mamen t: 45telr trve Je Am HUDDEias vs. Abr JANSEN wat in1. T of ssselihsgned witsigne Je Am>STUYVESANTrees. hasve62telr trve by J HAIE/HAY wat in3lonysee Indsbofncd te kgHayir the hctt Ge aning poju lamedpynd onths l,ou9, ,vSeptet8,t in5,ound due of the se The gtooribles.) cTto ssselve Hapo e He whecipta onea. In coec him by] paa ofcusignesBoiuta uGov ae hcLov in p,ou9, 1nMapy i70parorDhetd Joetor (re, h,mhe Xsisk and China CapinBes,bind nede pies of thie Hap)nsall of the followw ren163TH>


&nbOas on, ofnths lh"undiespe"t is ren onER - Dirliefl and Chinaand, apped ie I471638:
NYD: "Declaran onctor itehCo Dtru we anol6tll Gews Bircke f’en’s anccuss bind ne larfhRobn caButlelarfh hetantantor el tesiti as cNY"tor itehCo D,Ju7pyndlarfhaghdget In sJan, at the requeshRobbn caBry] laer6tll lisc,Sa Fhiymd X, anorebind ne larfhGws Bircmeises tion hRobbn caBry] laerrsen’s i he a whhiyart,s us fshat hd a whhiyrse as c.ctor WehCo Dton elsverl In cons oissoof an l 8. "This is the X marctor WehCo D. and ChinaaVienjyart,d oeiaaVienjyget In s to the . 8. "This is the X mard oeiaaVienjyasAdbr Matget In l6tll hGws Bircmsielf and his dd hrlf hRobbn caBry] laerrsen’s ,were e b anr a whhiy,rain whi.ton elsverl In cons[oof an ]true. ttd of Manha,r to 30th usdS22 SepteJuly In7lan." ><

&#sbOaanceucret ,y i66,s to Dl be ta645, conthied s " peirckVolc1639rain ws to trehicharohall h of lings tro D,Jher he ip paysidee oeiriodoutEfecutive ysideeone onfromed awn the prts:l biz ,e pbtcs , C="esl npa e y Iny i77hi.tra, ts rordeing rees of li bouns " peyce bouaugerpenhand,arrequeh y, e=fospectinats ohhe bewrr d a : 638:

NYt"I –FONNVEYANCE,e of Aep4,y i77,s IRCK VOLCKVESE TO JAN LESQUUVErside payd incontinatsLese ieeeonshe Xsisk Racrels to Dl,s to D’souaugeraipany,elevtn tws BesencethergetsBhswy Dounsre,m, Racrele oft he638, b s oisl be h of lingsmber and d condita. Anosttn tws Besrain whihok ofsLese iee,t he bougeybred na. Anoencs to D’souaugerpenhai. .iMcgdachaarsidebred fs, wful hus Habmse H atducklgrt bk du inyir and twewas tws Besencethergend meade ,ctt Ge se Hhe d a n toby]trKi s,tsck s-we lencrDhetdanocrem house ust sAt lencr to DirckVols .ctod witsigneanostrKo Duheok ose edCCnssolc1 and Pi Jan ectodars, a. Clocqyma i85,dS22 y 7 –k ofsLee erstly decl6erly djudgestra, ts rharoirckVolcs to Dlending the aethers and cysiging tognes to Dirck Vols fR> >222sAh axaastwitmpred ie i83,d X, aER - Dirldean hd hcwtrered s " peirckVolc tck ow280telr t. irckVolc hasverom0liosi eto JancMESEROLEias rve Je Am PRAA.sbOaanceucret 9, 70116cond rees of e islwhe hur cysiias t is recooas lot belongins ofY"tode piesFckVolcs IRKSENa"1sbOad oe pe ipies1718aory 7 9,s of e islwhe dietdcooamo b anrwit, t pel,s to Do aas ipias tKlaal,"For mave relongrwih, hrees of Intelr t.sbOas to the eiy] r toyl be ta6jnitrt of rve Je Am PRAAsmbers of e islpaitsigone out of the fa.the BRthe BROTTE> UOTE>

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OGN=IN OF OURFONMILY SUR 2TATE< : 63TH> &# Tom the Du islt a Norweg62] uecl6u misal"potnd ymic"dove duesyeqem639rain ws to fa anoirhall fdove.ealer, s to as co D'f li fdove.,tscy f ahi he no th ws ttanandsal"the fadove."ered spaitsigred swasctor gertalmals tokthe . Us, u, oisesyeqem,y toisurove. onER - Dir as co Di he 38> to Dl (rom0sim shavee caa to Dl. oaER - Dx)loIll of the followtor gertal,s to as co Dpies " pe 38>rckVolc to Dl h,misurove.s bass sid and all fdove., 38>rckVolc.lthe BR>><

&#sbTondEngstabsseiz n, in the Amstehay bula cre andcflony i6 ias t iove.f,heers, NewD,he X pectinf efr iutje, the Durulembers of potnd ymicesyeqem. 8of potnd ynis isatineus yher tosidem P the Dands ci, sealer, ipby Geili the fadove.s,k nvtov a)sim gnes s'ra, tlsitr'ousvehEngstabisurove.s.> ourvcncr,k ipby Geili li fdove.i hed to estabco, bass sid, v0lofon,ove. onirckVoleasOv a) tokthel 75te - lyd 20 y,t of the fadove.i hedavee cairckVolcl,irckVolclg,sFckVolcs,sFckVolcse,irckVolclraartdsFckVolcsicaneBynderesim nout of ian Amen R voiurtalhaps itJalnt, mhnecu sctlmdavee caiFULKVESONlon ny o torpvoe claran onh of FukVolsicisurove. men bf ta fr is ian Amen is ren onfromthis 1626 a9thesrequoissN FakVolsic, FaukVolsic, FokVolsic, FukVolsinpa e y 8ofsepvoe claran nes wtor getlmdei torp(1) a esis l onfp as ren p,ourp(2)grednoisrdavee pecs andca usignesguisse btatn onlocknhrees of nhe . lthe BR>><

&#siFULKVESONs itJanhEngstab/Irtab/Sane Dasurove.thm tehoryeciamdi,rain wand,arrequehorieloapta oneSanee islitJadphoneoicpvoe cbimary'Farqhalsica"1sAehoryr as ssame nuree FukVolsich andi ofusigingian Amegred w onsBoiuta ttanes, t2, proe ther,y 8401626 X, awd hi. 8ofyodiahm td to estab hims is ifAmeli the fad pesioing tehUnipta Ss ecl. ltIi38> alnt, ms sscncr (99.9%), ian Amenslik, aanae Indsborr lot y toisurove. FULKVESONs-ourpas ie farpvoe cbim-nSesc degred irckVolc16 to trelans to DiD sen, NIniees of in the Amstehnds settle.R/Ii3he BR>><

&#sbTonraindidkt be-sz, stan lotien,iterom0loegaran on ian Ameered h of FukVolsic the fa'slikc e hih andi ofusegred i Gby Gey.sbTonraiarrs ie far Gby Gedove.sm as as FakV, FakcV, FakDeias FaukDreescwthor,h of FukVolsicisurove. ieside, Gby Geias . aesidgainntertalmal himspeopl nou Gby Gehorielo. lE> UOTE>

300ofrTorilltarnHse him,t of igoim us Potnd ymicsONT32TATE

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<<8>P> &#s to Dtru and Chinair as co Dias sli, siilo the aR> 2TATE><<

><"rs, NewD Hse historiM nusccipes: the D;ircky IV,CCnute=laMknuesse1638- In91" ra, tlsitr bm.Ar asveJ.F.cVis Laor,"Fdiitr bm.KenneoheSanedars, Kenn Scoyker-Rodda,EGerealogstordPuestabe bCCnloIlc., Bal tesr wiMd., NY74.ain.
><"rs, NewD Hse historiM nusccipes: the D;iRNors aiman, oa the ite clvSn, secre,irckumsrI,e1638- In21" ra, tlsitr rs, dam tsitr bm.Ar asveJ.F.cVis Laor,"Fdiitr bm.KenneoheSanedars, Kenn Scoyker-Rodda,ENY74.ain.
><"rs, NewD Hse historiM nusccipes: the D;irckumsrII,iRNors aiman, oa the ite clvSn, secre,i In2- In71" ra, tlsitr rs, dam tsitr bm.Ar asveJ.F.cVis Laor,"Fdiitr bm.KenneoheSanedars, Kenn Scoyker-Rodda,ENY74.ain.
><"rs, NewD Hse historiM nusccipes: the D;irckumsrIII,iRNors aiman, oa the ite clvSn, secre,i In8- I601" ra, tlsitr rs, dam tsitr bm.Ar asveJ.F.cVis Laor,"Fdiitr bm.KenneoheSanedars, Kenn Scoyker-Rodda,ENY74.ain.
><"Coe fclaran onh toers, NewDEGerealogstordred BioRC="gstordScuffop,ircky II,iBaputamsgred i 639de - 730gob, ofuR8, bmsk the D anhe p,ers, NewD1" byrToomaf GasEe, t, NY0116rearititr bm.Tto Gsegg thesssin NY68.
>BR>><"rs, NewD Hse historiM nusccipes, the D,irckumsrV,CCnute=laMknuess,)an52- I541" ra, tlsitr rs,"Fdiitr bm ChaslesrT.EGehrsec,sTte rckther Scuffop oners, NewD,EGerealogstordPuestabe bCCnloIlc., Bal tesr wi1983,gpcgsi16.ain.
><"Coute=laMknuess,)an55- I561" ra, tlsitr rs,"Fdiitr bm ChaslesrT.EGehrsec,sTte rckther Scuffop oners, NewD,ESyse us yUnecu sa y thesswi1995,gpcgsi3.ain.
><"Tte Ris ren on in the Amstegred i in3de y i74 dam Domith1" Fdiitr bm BolthasveF anow,gpuestabp,lundpedie t ma y ouh of thop oners, NewD. ain.
><"Coeon clvChasrpenhaay] pasness Geapas ouh of tiamunioisi tiaoriblesh of thop oners, NewD1" byrJ roasveS ymnhn,yitogBod h oneSs eu him Consoo dertal ouh of thop oners, NewDwi1939.ain.
><"Eer e)Sds s rg on Bid wG D,rL bettanru pers, NewDw"ircky , bysAe huweJ. the t, mJr., NYn91gpcgss 85-94.ain.
><"Sc, staavrGeaIndi of pssiners, NewDwi 630- i741" byrJohneOasEejen, NY161gpcgss 68-79.ain.
><" in the Amsteoors IpssPeopl 1" byrJ.HloIlnss,ers, NewDwi1902.ain.
><"Hse hist Ge se ang p1" byctor itehL.eF l Am, NY191gpcgss- 7-19.ain.
><"A Hse hiy ouh of thop oneBrhe lyeias tKtandCCnutty1" byeSsephtn MasOsrlherAm, N8941gpcgs- ly.ain.
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